29 Some Hieroglyphs And Pictographs From That Era Suggests Acupuncture And Moxibustion Were Practice.
Jan 31, 2017
The.Judy.also.ncludes.arnings.gainst practising aacupuncture on infants, as well as on children who are over-fatigued, very weak, or have overeaten. 240 When used on children, acupuncture is considered safe when administered by well-trained, licensed practitioners using sterile needles; however, a 2011 review found there was limited research to draw definite conclusions about the overall safety of paediatric acupuncture. 3 The same review found 279 adverse events, 25 of them serious. 3 The adverse events were mostly mild in nature e.g. bruising or bleeding. 3 The prevalence of mild adverse events ranged from 10.1% to 13.5%, an estimated 168 incidences among 1,422 patients. 3 On rare occasions adverse events were serious e.g. cardiac rupture or hemoptysis ; much might have been a result of substandard practice. 3 The incidence of serious adverse events was 5 per one million, which included children and adults. 3 When used during pregnancy, the majority of adverse events caused by acupuncture were mild and transient, with few serious adverse events. 241 The most frequent mild adverse event was needling or unspecified pain, followed by bleeding. 241 Although two deaths one stillbirth and one neonatal death were reported, there was a lack of acupuncture-associated maternal mortality. 241 Limiting the evidence as certain, probable or possible in the causality evaluation, the estimated incidence of adverse events following acupuncture in pregnant women was 131 per 10,000. 241 Although acupuncture is not contraindicated in pregnant women, some specific acupuncture points are particularly sensitive to needle insertion; these spots, as well as the abdominal region, should be avoided during pregnancy. 2 Four adverse events associated with moxibustion were bruising, burns and cellulitis, spinal epidural abscess, and large superficial basal cell carcinoma. 16 Ten adverse events were associated with cupping. 16 The minor ones were keloid scarring, burns, and bullae ; 16 the serious ones were acquired haemophilia A, stroke following cupping on the back and neck, factitious panniculitis, reversible cardiac hypertrophy, and iron deficiency anaemia . 16 A 2013 meta-analysis found that acupuncture for chronic low back pain was cost-effective as a complement to standard care, but not as a substitute for standard care except in cases where co morbid depression presented. 19 The same meta-analysis found there was no difference between sham and non-sham acupuncture. 19 A 2011 systematic review found insufficient evidence for the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain. 20 A 2010 systematic review found that the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture could not be concluded. 29 :71 However, it is more likely that stones were used for other medical purposes, such as puncturing a growth to drain its pus . 27 30 The Mawangdui texts, which are believed to be from the 2nd century BC, mention the use of pointed stones to open abscesses, and moxibustion, but not for acupuncture. 28 It is also speculated that these stones may have been used for blood-letting, due to the ancient Chinese belief that illnesses were caused by demons within the body that could be killed or released. 269 It is likely blood-letting was an antecedent to acupuncture. 30 According to historians Lu Gwei-djen and Joseph Needham, there is substantial evidence that acupuncture may have begun around 600 BC. 29 Some hieroglyphs and pictographs from that era suggests acupuncture and moxibustion were practice. 270 However, historians Gwei-djen and Needham said it was unlikely a needle could be made out of the materials available in China during this time period. 29 :71-72 Acupuncture It is possible Bronze was used for early acupuncture needles. Korea is believed to be the first country in Asia that acupuncture spread to outside of China. 29 Within Korea there is a legend that acupuncture was developed by emperor Dan gun, 2008. Medical.cupuncture attempts to integrate reflexological concepts, the trigger point model, and anatomical insights such as dermatome distribution into acupuncture practice, and emphasizes a more formulaic approach to acupuncture point location. 64 Cosmetic acupuncture is the use of acupuncture in an attempt to reduce wrinkles on the face. 65 Bee venom acupuncture is a treatment approach Reports included 38 cases of infections and 42 cases of organ trauma. 10 The most frequent adverse events included pneumothorax, and bacterial and viral infections . 10 A 2013 review found without restrictions regarding publication date, study type or language 295 cases of infections; mycobacterium was the pathogen in at least 96%. 18 Likely sources of infection include towels, hot packs or boiling tank water, and reusing reprocessed needles. 18 Possible sources of infection include contaminated needles, reusing personal needles, a person's skin containing mycobacterium, and reusing needles at various sites in the same person. 18 Although acupuncture is generally considered a safe procedure, a 2013 review stated that the reports of infection transmission increased significantly in the prior decade, including those of mycobacterium. 18 Although it is recommended that practitioners of acupuncture use disposable needles, the reuse of sterilized needles is still permitted. 18 It is also recommended that thorough control practices for preventing infection be implemented and adapted. 18 The Xingnao Kaiqiao approach appears to be a safe form of treatment. 147 Fainting was the most frequent adverse event. 147 Fainting while being treated, haematoma, and pain while being treated are associated with individual physical differences and with needle manipulation. 147 A 2013 systematic review of the English-language case reports found that serious adverse events associated with acupuncture are rare, but that acupuncture is not without risk. 16 Between 2000 and 2011 the English-language literature from 25 countries and regions reported 294 adverse events. 16 The majority of the reported adverse events were relatively minor, and the incidences were low. 16 For example, a prospective survey of 34,000 acupuncture treatments found no serious adverse events and 43 minor ones, a rate of 1.3 per 1000 interventions. 16 Another survey found there were 7.1% minor adverse events, of which 5 were serious, amid 97,733 acupuncture patients. 16 The most common adverse effect observed was infection e.g. mycobacterium, and the majority of infections were bacterial in nature, caused by skin contact at the needling site. 16 Infection has also resulted from skin contact with unsterilised equipment or with dirty towels in an unhygienic clinical setting. 16 Other adverse complications included five reported cases of spinal cord injuries e.g. migrating broken needles or needling too deeply, four brain injuries, four peripheral nerve injuries, five heart injuries, seven other organ and tissue injuries, bilateral hand enema, epithelioid granuloma, pseudo lymphoma, argyria, pustules, pancytopenia, and scarring due to hot-needle technique. 16 Adverse reactions from acupuncture, which are unusual and uncommon in typical acupuncture practice, included syncope, galactorrhoea, bilateral nystagmus, pyoderma gangrenosum, hepatotoxicity, eruptive lichen planes, and spontaneous needle migration. 16 A 2013 systematic review found 31 cases of vascular injuries caused by acupuncture, three resulting in death. 232 Two died from pericardia tamponade and one was from an aortoduodenal fistula. 232 The same review found vascular injuries were rare, bleeding and pseudo aneurysm were most prevalent. 232 A 2011 systematic review without restriction in time or language, aiming to summarize all reported case of cardiac tamponade after acupuncture, found 26 cases resulting in 14 deaths, with little doubt about causality in most fatal instances. 233 The same review concluded cardiac tamponade was a serious, usually fatal, though theoretically avoidable complication following acupuncture, and urged training to minimize risk. 233 A 2012 review found a number of adverse events were reported after acupuncture in the UK's National Health Service NHS but most 95% were not severe, 42 though miscategorization and under-reporting may alter the total figures. 42 From January 2009 to December 2011, 468 safety incidents were recognized within the NHS organizations. 42 The adverse events recorded included retained needles 31%, dizziness 30%, loss of consciousness/unresponsive 19%, falls 4%, bruising or soreness at needle site 2%, pneumothorax 1% and other adverse side effects 12%. 42 Acupuncture practitioners should know, and be prepared to be responsible for, any substantial harm from treatments. 42 Some acupuncture proponents argue that the long history of acupuncture suggests it is safe. 42 However, there is an increasing literature on adverse events e.g. spinal-cord injury. 42 Acupuncture seems to be safe in people getting anticoagulants, assuming needles are used at the correct location and depth. 234 Studies are required to verify these findings. 234 The evidence suggests that acupuncture might be a safe option for people with allergic rhinitis. 118 Chinese, South Korean, and Japanese-language A 2010 systematic review of the Chinese-language literature found numerous acupuncture-related adverse events, including pneumothorax, fainting, sub arachnoid haemorrhage, and infection as the most frequent, and cardiovascular injuries, sub arachnoid haemorrhage, pneumothorax, and recurrent cerebral haemorrhage as the most serious, most of which were due to improper technique. 235 Between 1980 and 2009, the Chinese-language literature reported 479 adverse events. 235 Prospective surveys show that mild, transient acupuncture-associated adverse events ranged from 6.71% to 15%. 235 In a study with 190,924 patients, the prevalence of serious adverse events was roughly 0.024%. 235 Another study showed a rate of adverse events requiring specific treatment of 2.2%, 4,963 incidences among 229,230 patients. 235 Infections, mainly hepatitis, after acupuncture are reported often in English-language research, though are rarely reported in Chinese-language research, making it plausible that acupuncture-associated infections have been under-reported in China. 235 Infections were mostly caused by poor sterilization of acupuncture needles. 235 Other adverse events included spinal epidural haematoma in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, chylothorax, injuries of abdominal organs and tissues, injuries in the neck region, injuries to the eyes, including orbital haemorrhage, traumatic cataract, injury of the oculomotor nerve and retinal puncture, haemorrhage to the cheeks and the hypo glottis, peripheral motor-nerve injuries and subsequent motor dysfunction, local allergic reactions to metal needles, stroke, and cerebral haemorrhage after acupuncture. 235 A causal link between acupuncture and the adverse events cardiac arrest, pyknolepsy, shock, fever, cough, thirst, aphonic, leg numbness, and sexual dysfunction remains uncertain. 235 The same review concluded that acupuncture can be considered inherently safe when practice by properly trained practitioners, but the review also stated there is a need to find effective strategies to minimize the health risks. 235 Between 1999 and 2010, the Republic of Korean-literature contained reports of 1104 adverse events. 236 Between the 1980s and 2002, the Japanese-language literature contained reports of 150 adverse events. 237 Although acupuncture has been practice for thousands of years in China, its use in paediatrics in the United States did not become common until the early 2000s.
The.S.ongress.reated the Office of Alternative Medicine in 1992 and the National Institutes acupuncture”. Needles may be manipulated in various ways, including spinning, of the skin by thin metal needles, which are manipulated manually or the needle may be further stimulated by electrical stimulation electro acupuncture. 2 Acupuncture needles are typically made of stainless steel, making them flexible and preventing them from rusting or breaking. 46 Needles are usually disposed of after each use to prevent contamination. 46 Reusable needles when used shGould be sterilized between applications. 46 47 Needles vary in length between 13 to 130 millimetres 0.51 to 5.12 in, with shorter needles used near the face and eyes, and longer needles in areas with thicker tissues; needle diameters vary from 0.16 mm 0.006 in to 0.46 mm 0.018 in, 48 with thicker needles used on more robust patients. Even.f.hey.ould agree, the ACM theories are so nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable ACM to offer rational care.” 5 Some modern practitioners support the use of acupuncture to treat pain, but have abandoned the use of qi, meridians, yin, yang and other energies based in mysticism, as explanatory frameworks. 8 25 26 The use of qi as an explanatory framework has been decreasing in China, even as it becomes more prominent during discussions of acupuncture in the US. 257 Academic discussions of acupuncture still make reference to pseudo-scientific concepts such as qi and meridians despite the lack of scientific evidence. 257 Many within the scientific community consider attempts to rationalize acupuncture in science to be quackery, pseudo-science and “theatrical placebo”. 258 Academics Massimo Pigliucci and marten Boudry describe it as a “borderlands science” lying between science and pseudo-science. 259 Many acupuncturists attribute pain relief to the release of endorphins when needles penetrate, but no longer support the idea that acupuncture can affect a disease. 26 257 It is a generally held belief within the acupuncture community that acupuncture points and meridians structures are special conduits for electrical signals but no research has established any consistent anatomical structure or function for either acupuncture points or meridians. n 1 24 Human tests to determine whether electrical continuity was significantly different near meridians than other places in the body have been inconclusive. 24 Some studies suggest acupuncture causes a series of events within the central nervous system, 260 and that it is possible to inhibit acupuncture's analgesic effects with the opioid antagonist naloxone . 261 Mechanical deformation of the skin by acupuncture needles appears to result in the release of adenosine . 2 The anti-nociceptive effect of acupuncture may be mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor . 262 A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer review article found that since the key mouse studies that suggested acupuncture relieves as electrical pulses were found to make a frog's leg twitch after death. 269 The West eventually created a belief system based on travel trigger points that were believed to inhibit pain.
It.evolves.nserting.eedles to stimulate points on the outer ear . 63 The modern approaPh was developed in France during the early 1950s. 63 There is no scientific evidence acupuncture to cause bleeding, while others mixed the ideas of blood-letting and spiritual ch'i energy. It.bread to Vietnam in the 8th and 9th centuries. 30 As Vietnam began trading with Japan and China around the 9th century, it was influenced by their 94 A 2012 review found that acupuncture seems to be cost-effective for some pain conditions. 242 Risk of forgoing conventional medical care As with other alternative medicines, unethical or naive practitioners may induce patients to exhaust financial resources by pursuing ineffective treatment. 5 243 Profession ethical codes set by accrediting organizations such as the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine require practitioners to make “timely referrals to other health care professionals as may be appropriate.” 244 Stephen Barrett states that there is a “risk that an acupuncturist whose approach to diagnosis is not based on scientific concepts will fail to diagnose a dangerous condition”. 245 Main articles: Qi, Traditional Chinese medicine, Meridian Chinese medicine, and Acupuncture point Old Chinese medical chart of acupuncture meridians Acupuncture is a substantial part of traditional Chinese medicine ACM. 4 Early acupuncture beliefs relied on concepts that are common in ACM, such as a life force energy called qi. 246 Qi was believed to flow from the body's primary organs zang-fu organs to the “superficial” body tissues of the skin, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints, citation needed through channels called meridians. 247 Acupuncture points where needles are inserted are mainly but not always found at locations along the meridians. 248 Acupuncture points not found along a meridian are called extraordinary points and those with no designated site are called “A-shi” points. 248 In ACM, disease is generally perceived as a disharmony or imbalance in energies such as yin, yang, qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians, and of the interaction between the body and the environment. 249 Therapy is based on which “pattern of disharmony” can be identified. 250 251 For example, some diseases are believed to be caused by meridians being invaded with an excess of wind, cold, and damp. 252 In order to determine which pattern is at hand, practitioners examine things like the colon and shape of the tongue, the relative strength of pulse-points, the smell of the breath, the quality of breathing, or the sound of the voice. 253 254 ACM and its concept of disease does not strongly differentiate between the cause and effect of symptoms. 255 Scientific research has not supported the existence of qi, meridians, or yin and yang. n 1 24 25 A Nature editorial described ACM as “fraught with pseudo-science”, with the majority of its treatments having no logical mechanism of action . 256 Quackwatch states that “ACM theory and practice are not based upon the body of knowledge related to health, disease, and health care that has been widely accepted by the scientific community. In ACM, the four diagnostic methods are: inspection, on a rhythm and acupuncture had to be applied at the right point in the rhythm to be effective. 29 :140-141 In some cases a lack of balance between Yin and Yang were believed to be the cause of disease. 29 :140-141 In the 1st century AD, many of the first books about acupuncture were published and recognized acupuncturist experts began to emerge.